Casting of metals is the process of obtaining metal products by pouring molten hot metal in a special form.
The casting products are used in automotive, machinebuilding and machine tool industries, in the production of household appliances, modern electronics, jewelry and dentistry.
Any metal can be used in casting, but in particular those which have an important property such as the fluidity, i.e., the ability to take the configuration of the mold. This parameter depends on the chemical composition and structure of metal. Crucial factor is melting temperature: the lower it is, the easier it is amenable to industrial metal casting.
There are many types of casting: sand casting, shell casting, investment casting, casting for freezable mercury models and others. The most widespread today are molding, die casting, vacuum casting and centrifugal casting.
Advantages of casting:
- high performance;
- high surface quality (Grades 5-8 purity aluminum alloys);
- the exact dimensions of the molded part (3-7 accuracy classes);
- minimal need for machined products.
Disadvantages of the technology:
- limited complexity of the configuration (related to the fact that the separation of the casting from the mold damage can occur);
- limited thickness of the casting (melt solidifies evenly, if the product is fine).