Casting of metals is the process of obtaining metal products by pouring molten hot metal in a special form.

The casting products are used in automotive, machinebuilding and machine tool industries, in the production of household appliances, modern electronics, jewelry and dentistry.

Any metal can be used in casting, but in particular those which have an important property such as the fluidity, i.e., the ability to take the configuration of the mold. This parameter depends on the chemical composition and structure of metal. Crucial factor is melting temperature: the lower it is, the easier it is amenable to industrial metal casting.

There are many types of casting: sand casting, shell casting, investment casting, casting for freezable mercury models and others. The most widespread today are molding, die casting, vacuum casting and centrifugal casting.

Advantages of casting:

  • high performance;
  • high surface quality (Grades 5-8 purity aluminum alloys);
  • the exact dimensions of the molded part (3-7 accuracy classes);
  • minimal need for machined products.

Disadvantages of the technology:

  • limited complexity of the configuration (related to the fact that the separation of the casting from the mold damage can occur);
  • limited thickness of the casting (melt solidifies evenly, if the product is fine).

Centrifugal casting

Centrifugal casting  is a casting technique that is typically used to cast thin-walled cylinders. It is noted for the high quality of the results attainable.

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Die casting

Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity.

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Investment casting

Investment casting is one of the oldest manufacturing processes, dating back thousands of years, in which molten metal is poured into an expendable ceramic mold.

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Sand casting

Sand castings are produced in specialized factories called foundries. Over 70% of all metal castings are produced via a sand casting process.

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Chill casting

Permanent mold (chill) casting is a metal casting process that shares similarities to both sand casting and die casting.

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Lost foam casting

Lost-foam casting is a type of evaporative-pattern casting process that is similar to investment casting except foam is used for the pattern instead of wax.

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Shell Mold Casting

Casting process in which the mold is a thin hardened shell of sand and thermosetting resin binder, backed up by some other material.

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